Central and Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about extensive migration of skilled labourers to Ireland and the United Kingdom following the creation of the Schengen Agreement. Lithuania , for example, has lost about , citizens since , many of them young and well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular. A similar phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union. In the first year of its EU membership, , Poles registered to work in England, joining an estimated , residents of Polish descent.
The exodus is likely to continue, however. The rapid but small-scale departure of highly skilled workers from Southeastern Europe has caused concern about those nations developing deeper integration in the European Union. Serbia is one of the top countries that have experienced human capital flight from the fall of communist regime. In , people started emigrating to Italy and Greece, and then began going farther, to the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.
In the last ten years, educated people and professionals have been leaving the country and going to other countries where they feel they can have improved possibilities for better and secure lives. This is a concern for Albania as well, as it is losing its skilled-workers and professionals. In the s, many skilled and educated people emigrated from Turkey , including many doctors and engineers.
This emigration wave is believed to have been triggered by political instability, including the military coup. In later decades, into the s, many Turkish professionals emigrated, and students studying overseas chose to remain abroad, mainly due to better economic opportunities. This human capital flight was given national media attention, and in , the government formed a task force to investigate the "brain drain" problem.
There are a considerable number of people leaving the United Kingdom for other countries, especially Australia and the United States. Business industries expressed worries that Brexit poses significant risk of causing brain drain. Countries in Africa have lost a tremendous amount of their educated and skilled populations as a result of emigration to more developed countries, which has harmed the ability of such nations to climb out of poverty.
Nigeria , Kenya , and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected. I dream of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africa's problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africa's place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information.
In response to growing debate over the human capital flight of healthcare professionals , especially from lower-income countries to some higher-income countries, in the World Health Organization adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel , a policy framework for all countries for the ethical international recruitment of doctors, nurses and other health professionals.
African human capital flight has begun to reverse itself due to rapid growth and development in many African nations, and the emergence of an African middle class. Between and , six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies were in Africa, and between and , Africa's economic growth was expected to outpace that of Asia.
This, together with increased development, introduction of technologies such as faster internet access and mobile phones, a better-educated population, and the environment for business driven by new tech start-up companies, has resulted in many expatriates from Africa returning to their home countries, and more Africans staying at home to work.
The trend for young doctors and nurses to seek higher salaries and better working conditions, mainly in higher-income countries of the West, is having serious impacts on the health care sector in Ghana. Ghana currently has about 3, doctors—one for every 6, inhabitants. This compares with one doctor per people in the United States. Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing human capital flight in the past 20 years, since the end of apartheid.
More recently, in a case of reverse brain drain a net , highly skilled South Africans returned to South Africa from foreign work assignments over a five-year period from to This was catalysed by the global financial crisis of and perceptions of a higher quality of life in South Africa relative to the countries to which they had first emigrated. During the Iraq War , especially during the early years, the lack of basic services and security fed an outflow of professionals from Iraq that began under Saddam Hussein , under whose rule four million Iraqis are believed to have left the country.
Israel has experienced varying levels of emigration throughout its history, with the majority of Israeli expatriates moving to the United States. Currently, some , native-born Israelis including , Israeli Jews are estimated to be living abroad, while the number of immigrants to Israel who later left is unclear. Many Israelis with degrees in scientific or engineering fields have emigrated abroad, largely due to lack of job opportunities.
From Israel's establishment in May to December , about , doctors and academics left Israel. In addition, the majority of Israelis who emigrate eventually return after extended periods abroad. In , the Israeli government began a programme to encourage Israelis living abroad to return; since then, the number of returning Israelis has doubled, and in , Israeli expatriates, including academics, researchers, technical professionals, and business managers, began returning in record numbers.
The country launched additional programmes to open new opportunities in scientific fields to encourage Israeli scientists and researchers living abroad to return home. These initiatives have since succeeded in luring many Israeli scientists back home.
By , the Arab countries were experiencing human capital flight, according to reports from the United Nations and Arab League. The reasons for this included attraction to opportunities in technical and scientific fields in the West and an absence of job opportunities in the Arab world, as well as wars and political turmoil that have plagued many Arab nations.
In , human capital flight was showing signs of reversing, with many young students choosing to stay and more individuals from abroad returning. In particular, many young professionals are becoming entrepreneurs and starting their own businesses rather than going abroad to work for companies in Western countries. This was partially a result of the Arab Spring , after which many Arab countries began viewing science as the driving force for development, and as a result stepped up their science programmes.
Another reason may be the ongoing global recession. The one famous example of brain drain in Indonesia is Indonesian Aerospace , after the Asian financial crisis , many Indonesian Aerospace workers choose to leave their country to find a better career overseas. As of , there are at least 60 Indonesians graduated from local or overseas universities working at Boeing and Airbus , with half of them holding middle management positions.
There have been high rates of human capital flight from Malaysia. Major pull factors have included better career opportunities abroad and compensation, while major push factors included corruption, social inequality, educational opportunities, racial inequality such as the government's Bumiputera affirmative action policies.
As of , Bernama has reported that there are a million talented Malaysians working overseas. In , colonialism in the Philippines ended with the election of Manuel Roxas. However Roxas, having spent his last three years as the secretary of finance and chairman of the National Economic Council and a number of other Filipino companies, was particularly concerned with the country's financial rather than health problems.
When the United States relaxed their Immigration Act laws in , labour export emerged as a possible solution for the Philippines. Since the s and s, the Philippines has been the largest supplier of nurses to the United States, in addition to export labour supplied to the UK and Saudi Arabia. Seeking access through the Exchange Visitors Program EVP sponsored by the US government, workers were encouraged to go abroad to learn more skills and earn higher pay, sending remittance payments back home.
Pursuing economic gains through labour migration over infrastructural financing and improvement, the Philippines still faced slow economic growth during the s and s. Studies show stark wage discrepancies between the Philippines and developed countries such as the US and the UK. This has led Philippine government officials to note that remittances sent home may be seen as more economically valuable than pursuit of local work. However, scholars have noted that economic disparities in the Philippines have not been eased in the past decades.
The Philippines spent only 3. Migration has arguably become a "taken-for-granted" aspect of a nursing career, particularly with regard to the culture of migration that has been institutionally perpetuated in the health sector.
Of approximately schools providing bachelor's degrees in nursing,  the majority are privately controlled, in part due to the inability of the Philippine government to keep up with rising education demand. However, private schooling has also been a lucrative business, fulfilling the dire need of Philippine labour looking for potential access to higher income.
In addition to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration POEA run by the government that serves as both a source of overseas recruitment agreements and as a marketer of Philippine labour overseas, private nursing schools have acted as migration funnels, expanding enrolment, asserting control over the licensure process, and entering into business agreements with other overseas recruitment agencies.
Discrepancies in wages between Philippine nurses working at home and those working abroad, as noted above, provide clear economic incentives for nurses to leave the country; however, physicians have also been lured into these promises of wealth through the creation of "Second Course" nursing programs. The Philippines' colonial and post-WWII history contribute an understanding of the process by which nurses have increasingly turned to migration for greater economic benefits.
Discussed in terms of numbers and financial gains, export labour migration has been suggested as a solution to the struggling Philippine economy, with labour transfers and remittance payments seen as beneficial for both countries. With physicians and nurses leaving en masse for greater financial promise abroad, the ratio of nurses to patients in the Philippines has worsened from 1 nurse per 15—20 patients in to 1 nurse per 40—60 patients in Once abroad, Philippine nurses have identified discriminatory workplace practices, receiving more night and holiday shifts, as well as more mundane tasks than non-Philippine counterparts.
As noted, financial and economic statistics cannot fully describe the complexity of en-masse migration of nurses and physicians. A multitude of elements combine to encourage a culture of migration. The term "brain drain" can be applied to the Philippine situation; however, it is important to note, this does not suggest export labour migration as the primary causal factor of the country's current economic situation. Lack of government funding for healthcare systems, in addition to the export labour migration culture, as well as other local factors, all contribute to what is occurring in the Philippines.
It is important to understand the complexity of the nation's socioeconomic history with regard to labour export and government funding in order to determine benefits, costs, and perpetuated problems within the society's infrastructure. The New York Times described Barack Obama 's remarks at the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative on conditions which cause brain drain as "slyly" describing Vietnam, with corruption, pollution, and poor education.
Every year, , youth are reported to leave Nepal for various reasons. They seek opportunity in its various manifestations — higher living standards, employment, better income, education, an alluring western lifestyle, stability and security. Sri Lanka has lost a significant portion of its intellectuals, mainly due to civil war and the resulting uncertainty that prevailed in the country for the thirty-year period prior to the end of the conflict in In recent years, many expatriates have indicated interest in returning to Sri Lanka, but have been deterred by slow economic growth and political instability.
Both the government and private organizations are making efforts to encourage professionals to return to Sri Lanka and to retain resident intellectuals and professionals. With rapid GDP growth and a higher degree of openness towards the rest of the world, there has been an upsurge in Chinese emigration to Western countries—particularly the United States, Canada and Australia.
According to a study, seven out of every ten students who enroll in an overseas university never return to live in their homeland. Since the beginning of the last century, international students were sent to different countries to learn advanced skills, and they were expected to return to save the nation from invasion and poverty. While most of these students came back to make a living, there were still those who chose to stay abroad.
From the s to the s, China was in a period of widespread upheaval due to political instability. As a result, many Chinese felt upset and disappointed about the situation. The situation did not improve after the gradual liberalization of China during the s; just as many people chose to go abroad, since there were more opportunities overseas. More social upheavals happened with the Tiananmen Square Massacre —the result of which was an increasing Chinese diaspora. As steady economic growth boosts GDP per capita, more families in China are able to pay for their children to go abroad for study or to live.
During the s, 30, New Zealanders were emigrating each year. An OECD report released in revealed that During the election campaign, the National Party campaigned on the ruling Labour Party's inability to keep New Zealanders at home, with a series of billboards announcing "Wave goodbye to higher taxes, not your loved ones".
It was estimated in December that , New Zealanders had left for Australia since the Key government came to power in late New Zealand enjoys immigration of qualified foreigners, potentially leaving a net gain of skills. Colonial administrators in Canada observed the trend of human capital flight to the United States as early as the s, when it was already clear that a majority of immigrants arriving at Quebec City were en route to destinations in the United States.
Alexander C. Buchanan, government agent at Quebec, argued that prospective emigrants should be offered free land to remain in Canada. The issue of attracting and keeping the right immigrants has sometimes been central to Canada's immigration history. When governments displayed no interest, concerned industrialists formed the Technical Service Council in to combat the brain drain. As a practical means of doing so, the council operated a placement service that was free to graduates.
By , the council had placed over 16, men and women. Between and over 17, engineers and scientists emigrated to the United States. In Canada today, the idea of a brain drain to the United States is occasionally a domestic political issue. At times, brain drain is used as a justification for income tax cuts. During the s, some alleged a brain drain from Canada to the United States, especially in the software , aerospace , health care and entertainment industries, due to the perception of higher wages and lower income taxes in the US.
The evidence suggests that, in the s, Canada did lose some of its homegrown talent to the US. This allowed the country to realize a net brain gain as more professionals entered Canada than left. In the mids, Canada's resilient economy, strong domestic market, high standard of living, and considerable wage growth across a number of sectors, effectively ended the brain drain debate. The United States Census led to a special report on domestic worker migration, with a focus on the movement of young, single, college-educated migrants.
The largest net influx of young, single, college-educated persons was to the San Francisco Bay Area. Many predominantly rural communities in the Appalachia region of the United States have experienced a "brain drain" of young college students migrating to urban areas in and outside of Appalachia for employment, political reasonings, and opportunities offered in urban areas that rural communities are currently unable to.
The country as a whole does not experience large-scale human capital flight as compared with other countries, with an emigration rate of only 0. Regarding foreign scholars earning their degrees in the United States and return to their home country, Danielle Guichard-Ashbrook of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has been quoted as stating "We educate them, but then we don't make it easy for them to stay".
In recent years, many people from younger generations people born from onward have migrated out of Colombia. Many of them are looking for better employment opportunities elsewhere due to the political turmoil that has been going on in the past decades. In many cases, the flight of educated people from Colombia does not occur, due to a lack of economic resources from the people and no governmental support in any extracurricular endeavors sports or liberal arts.
In , Cuban officials claimed that 31, Cuban doctors were deployed in 61 countries. However, in Venezuela and Bolivia , where another 1, doctors work, it is stated that as many as doctors may have fled the missions in the years preceding into countries nearby. A New Method of Exile" states that the Venezuelan refugee crisis was caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future".
In the "Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile" study, of the more than 1. Many of the Caribbean Islands endure a constant and substantial emigration of qualified workers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals. For other uses, see Brain drain disambiguation. Main article: The Martians scientists. Main articles: Eastern Bloc emigration and defection and Eastern Bloc.
Main article: Brain drain in Iran. Main article: Yerida. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with Philippines and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Venezuelan refugee crisis. Capitalism Convergence economics Economic results of migration Diaspora Foot voting Care drain Human capital Instructional capital Intelligentsia Knowledge transfer Opposition to immigration.
Foreign Policy In Focus. Institute for Policy Studies. Retrieved 15 June The migration of highly skilled workers can pay dividends for immigrants and their employers, but it produces losers as well. The Australian Population Research Institute. Monash University. Journal of the European Economic Association. Rochester, NY. International Journal of Manpower. J R Soc Med.
The Economic Journal. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. Journal of Development Economics. Retrieved Public Choice. IZA World of Labor. Studies in Comparative International Development. Bar-Ilan University. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs. Migrants may also serve as a channel for democratic attitudes and behaviors Evidence from a Voting Experiment". The World Bank Economic Review. OECD Observer. Globalization of Education: an introduction.
Starts at Der Spiegel. Retrieved 29 February Third World Quarterly. Experimental VS. Social Indicators Research. World Development. Remittances and Access to Public Services in Mexico, ". Comparative Political Studies. CESifo Economic Studies.
World Bank Economic Review. Evidence from Italy during the Great Recession". Economic Policy. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Centre for Economic Policy Research. Retrieved 19 October Review of World Economics. Kemeny and Kurtz were pioneers in the use of computers for ordinary people. Kemeny was president of Dartmouth from to , and continued to teach undergraduate courses and to do research and publish papers during his time as president.
He presided over the coeducation of Dartmouth in He also instituted the "Dartmouth Plan" of year-round operations, thereby allowing more students without more buildings. During his administration, Dartmouth became more proactive in recruiting and retaining minority students  and revived its founding commitment to provide education for American Indians. Kemeny made Dartmouth a pioneer in student use of computers, equating computer literacy with reading literacy. In he returned to teaching full-time.
John Kemeny died at the age of 66, the result of heart failure in Lebanon, New Hampshire  on December 26, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. John George Kemeny. The New York Times. Retrieved Ohles; John G. Ramsay Biographical Dictionary of Modern American Educators. Greenwood Publishing Group. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine. Equivalent logical systems. Princeton, NJ: Department of Mathematics. Type-theory vs. Dartmouth Time Sharing System.
Dartmouth College. Presidents of Dartmouth College. Kemeny — David T. McLaughlin — James O.
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A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed. It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places causes friction , and the friction takes away a little energy all the time.
If we ignore the losses due to friction, then the energy provided by the horse is given to the cannonball as potential energy. It has energy because it is up high and can fall down. As the cannonball swings down it gains more and more speed, so the nearer the bottom it gets the faster it is going and the harder it would hit you if you stood in front of it.
Then it slows down as its kinetic energy is changed back into potential energy. When energy moves from one form to another, the amount of energy always remains the same. It cannot be made or destroyed. This rule is called the "conservation law of energy". For example, when you throw a ball, the energy is transferred from your hand to the ball as you release it.
But the energy that was in your hand, and now the energy that is in the ball, is the same number. For a long time, people thought that the conservation of energy was all there was to talk about. When energy transforms into mass, the amount of energy does not remain the same. When mass transforms into energy, the amount of energy also does not remain the same.
However, the amount of matter and energy remains the same. The "m" in Einstein's equation stands for mass. Mass is the amount of matter there is in some body. If you knew the number of protons and neutrons in a piece of matter such as a brick, then you could calculate its total mass as the sum of the masses of all the protons and of all the neutrons. Electrons are so small that they are almost negligible. Masses pull on each other, and a very large mass such as that of the Earth pulls very hard on things nearby.
You would weigh much more on Jupiter than on Earth because Jupiter is so huge. You would weigh much less on the Moon because it is only about one-sixth the mass of Earth. Weight is related to the mass of the brick or the person and the mass of whatever is pulling it down on a spring scale — which may be smaller than the smallest moon in the solar system or larger than the Sun. Mass, not weight, can be transformed into energy. Another way of expressing this idea is to say that matter can be transformed into energy.
Units of mass are used to measure the amount of matter in something. The mass or the amount of matter in something determines how much energy that thing could be changed into. Energy can also be transformed into mass.
If you were pushing a baby buggy at a slow walk and found it easy to push, but pushed it at a fast walk and found it harder to move, then you would wonder what was wrong with the baby buggy. Then if you tried to run and found that moving the buggy at any faster speed was like pushing against a brick wall, you would be very surprised. The truth is that when something is moved then its mass is increased. Human beings ordinarily do not notice this increase in mass because at the speed humans ordinarily move the increase in mass in almost nothing.
As speeds get closer to the speed of light, then the changes in mass become impossible not to notice. The basic experience we all share in daily life is that the harder we push something like a car the faster we can get it going.
But when something we are pushing is already going at some large part of the speed of light we find that it keeps gaining mass, so it gets harder and harder to get it going faster. It is impossible to make any mass go at the speed of light because to do so would take infinite energy. Sometimes a mass will change to energy. Common examples of elements that make these changes we call radioactivity are radium and uranium. An atom of uranium can lose an alpha particle the atomic nucleus of helium and become a new element with a lighter nucleus.
Then that atom will emit two electrons, but it will not be stable yet. It will emit a series of alpha particles and electrons until it finally becomes the element Pb or what we call lead. By throwing out all these particles that have mass it has made its own mass smaller. It has also produced energy. In most radioactivity, the entire mass of something does not get changed to energy. In an atomic bomb, uranium is transformed into krypton and barium. There is a slight difference in the mass of the resulting krypton and barium, and the mass of the original uranium, but the energy that is released by the change is huge.
One way to express this idea is to write Einstein's equation as:. The c 2 in the equation stands for the speed of light squared. About 60 terajoules were released by the atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima. The idea of a Bose-Einstein condensate came out of a collaboration between S.
Bose and Prof. Einstein himself did not invent it but, instead, refined the idea and helped it become popular. In classical physics, momentum is explained by the equation:. When Einstein generalized classical physics to include the increase of mass due to the velocity of the moving matter, he arrived at an equation that predicted energy to be made of two components. One component involves "rest mass" and the other component involves momentum, but momentum is not defined in the classical way.
The equation typically has values greater than zero for both components:. A photon has no rest mass, but it has momentum. Light reflecting from a mirror pushes the mirror with a force that can be measured. Knowing either frequency or wavelength, you can compute the photon's momentum.
Therefore, the quantity "m 0 " used in Einstein's equation is sometimes called the "rest mass. This famous "mass-energy relation" formula usually written without the "0"s suggests that mass has a large amount of energy, so maybe we could convert some mass to a more useful form of energy. The nuclear power industry is based on that idea. The General Theory of Relativity was published in , ten years after the special theory of relativity was created.
Einstein's general theory of relativity uses the idea of spacetime. Spacetime is the fact that we have a four-dimensional universe, having three spatial space dimensions and one temporal time dimension. Any physical event happens at some place inside these three space dimensions, and at some moment in time.
According to the general theory of relativity, any mass causes spacetime to curve, and any other mass follows these curves. Bigger mass causes more curving. This was a new way to explain gravitation gravity. General relativity explains gravitational lensing, which is light bending when it comes near a massive object.
This explanation was proven correct during a solar eclipse , when the sun's bending of starlight from distant stars could be measured because of the darkness of the eclipse. General relativity also set the stage for cosmology theories of the structure of our universe at large distances and over long times.
Einstein thought that the universe may curve a little bit in both space and time, so that the universe always had existed and always will exist, and so that if an object moved through the universe without bumping into anything, it would return to its starting place, from the other direction, after a very long time. He even changed his equations to include a "cosmological constant," in order to allow a mathematical model of an unchanging universe. The general theory of relativity also allows the universe to spread out grow larger and less dense forever, and most scientists think that astronomy has proved that this is what happens.
When Einstein realized that good models of the universe were possible even without the cosmological constant, he called his use of the cosmological constant his "biggest blunder," and that constant is often left out of the theory. However, many scientists now believe that the cosmological constant is needed to fit in all that we now know about the universe. A popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang.
According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed 15 billion years ago, in what is called a " gravitational singularity ". This singularity was small, dense, and very hot. According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today came out of this point. Einstein himself did not have the idea of a " black hole ", but later scientists used this name for an object in the universe that bends spacetime so much that not even light can escape it. They think that these ultra-dense objects are formed when giant stars, at least three times the size of our sun, die.
This event can follow what is called a supernova. The formation of black holes may be a major source of gravitational waves, so the search for proof of gravitational waves has become an important scientific pursuit. Many scientists only care about their work, but Einstein also spoke and wrote often about politics and world peace. He liked the ideas of socialism and of having only one government for the whole world. He also worked for Zionism , the effort to try to create the new country of Israel.
Prompted by his colleague L. Brouwer , Einstein read the philosopher Eric Gutkind 's book Choose Life ,  a discussion of the relationship between Jewish revelation and the modern world. On January 3, , Einstein sent the following reply to Gutkind: "The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish.
For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. Even though Einstein thought of many ideas that helped scientists understand the world much better, he disagreed with some scientific theories that other scientists liked. The theory of quantum mechanics discusses things that can happen only with certain probabilities , which cannot be predicted with more precision no matter how much information we might have.
This theoretical pursuit is different from statistical mechanics , in which Einstein did important work. Einstein did not like the part of quantum theory that denied anything more than the probability that something would be found to be true of something when it was actually measured; he thought that it should be possible to predict anything, if we had the correct theory and enough information.
He once said, "I do not believe that God plays dice with the Universe. Because Einstein helped science so much, his name is now used for several different things. A unit used in photochemistry was named for him. It is equal to Avogadro's number multiplied by the energy of one photon of light. The chemical element Einsteinium is named after the scientist as well. Most scientists think that Einstein's theories of special and general relativity work very well, and they use those ideas and formulas in their own work.
Einstein disagreed that phenomena in quantum mechanics can happen out of pure chance. He believed that all natural phenomena have explanations that do not include pure chance. He spent much of his later life trying to find a " unified field theory " that would include his general relativity theory, Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism , and perhaps a better quantum theory.
Most scientists do not think that he succeeded in that attempt. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Albert Einstein. Princeton, New Jersey , United States. Federal polytechnic school —; B. Virtually all modern physics. Introduction History. Fundamental concepts. Principle of relativity Theory of relativity Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Rest frame Center-of-momentum frame Equivalence principle Mass—energy equivalence Special relativity Doubly special relativity de Sitter invariant special relativity World line Riemannian geometry.
Equations Formalisms. Oxford University Press. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. He became a United States citizen in ". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 7 March British historian Martin Gilbert notes that Churchill responded immediately, and sent his friend, physicist Frederick Lindemann , to Germany to seek out Jewish scientists and place them in British universities. As a result of Einstein's letter, Jewish invitees to Turkey eventually totaled over "1, saved individuals".
Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe. In October , Einstein returned to the US and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study,   noted for having become a refuge for scientists fleeing Nazi Germany. Einstein was still undecided on his future. He had offers from several European universities, including Christ Church, Oxford where he stayed for three short periods between May and June and was offered a 5-year studentship,   but in , he arrived at the decision to remain permanently in the United States and apply for citizenship.
Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in The two would take long walks together discussing their work. Bruria Kaufman , his assistant, later became a physicist. During this period, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics , both unsuccessfully.
The group's warnings were discounted. The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U. Some say that as a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the US entered the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material, financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project. For Einstein, "war was a disease Einstein became an American citizen in Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, he expressed his appreciation of the meritocracy in American culture when compared to Europe.
He recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social barriers, and as a result, individuals were encouraged, he said, to be more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education.
He considered racism America's "worst disease",  seeing it as "handed down from one generation to the next". Du Bois and was prepared to testify on his behalf during his trial in In Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, a historically black college , where he was awarded an honorary degree. Lincoln was the first university in the United States to grant college degrees to African Americans ; alumni include Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall.
Einstein gave a speech about racism in America, adding, "I do not intend to be quiet about it. Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem ,  which opened in and was among its first Board of Governors. Earlier, in , he was asked by the biochemist and president of the World Zionist Organization , Chaim Weizmann , to help raise funds for the planned university.
Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the various ongoing epidemics such as malaria , which he called an "evil" that was undermining a third of the country's development. Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age.
In his late journals he wrote: "If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music I get most joy in life out of music. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin , not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German culture. According to conductor Leon Botstein , Einstein began playing when he was 5.
However, he did not enjoy it at that age. When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart , whereupon he became enamored of Mozart 's compositions and studied music more willingly. Einstein taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically". He said that "love is a better teacher than a sense of duty. The examiner stated afterward that his playing was "remarkable and revealing of 'great insight'".
What struck the examiner, writes Botstein, was that Einstein "displayed a deep love of the music, a quality that was and remains in short supply. Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student. Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional musician himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he performed for private audiences and friends.
In , while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven and Mozart's works with members of the Zoellner Quartet. In , Einstein was one of the founding members of the German Democratic Party , a liberal party. In , he criticized them for not having a 'well-regulated system of government' and called their rule a 'regime of terror and a tragedy in human history'.
He later adopted a more balanced view, criticizing their methods but praising them, which is shown by his remark on Vladimir Lenin : "In Lenin I honor a man, who in total sacrifice of his own person has committed his entire energy to realizing social justice. I do not find his methods advisable. One thing is certain, however: men like him are the guardians and renewers of mankind's conscience. Einstein was deeply impressed by Mahatma Gandhi , with whom he exchanged written letters.
He described Gandhi as "a role model for the generations to come". Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews. And one life is enough for me. He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York ,  and was an honorary associate of the Rationalist Association , which publishes New Humanist in Britain. For the 75th anniversary of the New York Society for Ethical Culture , he stated that the idea of Ethical Culture embodied his personal conception of what is most valuable and enduring in religious idealism.
He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity. The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. No interpretation no matter how subtle can for me change this. For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions.
And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. I cannot see anything ' chosen ' about them. On 17 April , Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in Einstein refused surgery, saying, "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially.
I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of Einstein as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn.
Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter. The four papers are:. Einstein's first paper   submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view.
These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist. His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena.
Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density. At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.
It reconciled conflicts between Maxwell's equations the laws of electricity and magnetism and the laws of Newtonian mechanics by introducing changes to the laws of mechanics. The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. The decision to publish only under his name seems to have been mutual, but the exact reason is unknown. This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down , and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion.
This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous. Einstein originally framed special relativity in terms of kinematics the study of moving bodies. In , Hermann Minkowski reinterpreted special relativity in geometric terms as a theory of spacetime. Einstein adopted Minkowski's formalism in his general theory of relativity.
General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses. General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape.
As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory. In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply.
This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational redshift and deflection of light. In , Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies.
Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally. In , Einstein predicted gravitational waves ,   ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation.
The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it. By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed.
While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.
In June , the Entwurf 'draft' theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken  and abandoned the theory in November In , Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.
As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe. The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle in these years. This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe.
Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in , Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of   and the Einstein—de Sitter universe of In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder".
The astrophysicist Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated. In late , a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe. For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space. It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold.
General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry. The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason.
Einstein argued that this is true for a fundamental reason: the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was, in fact, the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.
This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard. In , Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole , often called Einstein—Rosen bridges. These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.
In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s.
The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein field equations , which describe how space curves. The geodesic equation , which describes how particles move, may be derived from the Einstein field equations. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein field equations themselves, not by a new law.
So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects.
In a paper,  Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.
Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.
In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.
Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements. Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made.
Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.
Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.
Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern.
This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics. Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation.
In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory". Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data. The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.
In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.
This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.
Einstein played a major role in developing quantum theory, beginning with his paper on the photoelectric effect. However, he became displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after , despite its acceptance by other physicists. He was skeptical that the randomness of quantum mechanics was fundamental rather than the result of determinism, stating that God "is not playing at dice". The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.
Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned to quantum mechanics, in particular to the question of its completeness, in the "EPR paper". No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.
Given Einstein's concept of local realism , there were two possibilities: 1 either the other particle had these properties already determined, or 2 the process of measuring the first particle instantaneously affected the reality of the position and momentum of the second particle. Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance". Einstein's belief in local realism led him to assert that, while the correctness of quantum mechanics was not in question, it must be incomplete.
But as a physical principle, local realism was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of confirmed Bell's theorem , which J. Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the picture of physics in which "particles are regarded as unconnected independent classical-like entities, each one being unable to communicate with the other after they have separated.
Although Einstein was wrong about local realism, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of its opposite, entangled quantum states , has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review. It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory.
Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation". In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death.
Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting. Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned.
These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research. In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.
Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization.
Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it. This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates modern quantum mechanics. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.
Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux. While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death she died in .
Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union. Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery , as agent for the university. The Einstein rights were litigated in in a federal district court in California.
Although the court initially held that the Einstein rights had expired,  that ruling was immediately appealed, and the decision was later vacated in its entirety. The court's initial decision no longer has any legal impact or effect of any kind.
The underlying claims between the parties in that lawsuit were ultimately settled. The Einstein rights are enforceable, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is the exclusive representative of those rights. In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory".
He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein. Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music.
Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true". Many popular quotations are often misattributed to him. Einstein received numerous awards and honors, and in , he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
None of the nominations in met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel , so the prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Einstein disambiguation. For other uses, see Albert Einstein disambiguation.
German-born scientist who developed the theory of relativity. Princeton, New Jersey , U. Virtually all modern physics. See also: Einstein family. Main articles: Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and statistical physics.
Main article: Critical opalescence. Main article: History of special relativity. Main article: History of general relativity. See also: Theory of relativity and Einstein field equations. Main article: Physical cosmology. Main article: Stress—energy—momentum pseudotensor. Main article: Einstein—Cartan theory. Main article: Einstein—Infeld—Hoffmann equations. Main article: Old quantum theory.
Main article: Einstein solid. Main article: Adiabatic invariant. Main article: Bose—Einstein statistics. Main article: Bohr—Einstein debates. Main article: Classical unified field theories. Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations. Main article: Einstein—de Haas effect. Main article: Albert Einstein in popular culture. Main article: Einstein's awards and honors. Further information: List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein. Einstein, Albert [Manuscript received: 16 December ].
Written at Zurich, Switzerland. Annalen der Physik in German. Hoboken, New Jersey published 14 March Bibcode : AnP Einstein, Albert a [Manuscript received: 18 March ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. Hoboken, New Jersey published 10 March Einstein, Albert b [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei.
Einstein, Albert c [Manuscript received: 11 May ]. Einstein, Albert d [Manuscript received: 30 June ]. Annalen der Physik Submitted manuscript in German. Einstein, Albert e [Manuscript received: 27 September ]. Einstein, Albert [Published 25 November ]. Sitzungsberichte in German. Einstein, Albert 22 June Bibcode : SPAW Retrieved 14 November Einstein, Albert a. Einstein, Albert b. Physikalische Zeitschrift in German. Bibcode : PhyZ Einstein, Albert 31 January Einstein, Albert [First published , in English ].
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Bibcode : PNAS Einstein, Albert; Rosen, Nathan Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv Physical Review Submitted manuscript. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Three Rivers Press. Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung. Stachel, John ; Martin J. Klein; A.
Kox; Michel Janssen; R. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. Princeton University Press. Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 25 May Einstein, Albert May Sweezy, Paul; Huberman, Leo eds. Monthly Review. Reprise ". New York: Monthly Review Foundation.
Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 16 January — via MonthlyReview. Autobiographical Notes. Chicago: Open Court. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48— The center was once the Palmer Physical Laboratory. She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it.
She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual The man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home. How proud we must be to offer him temporary shelter. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled. Oxford University Press. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society.
Pearson Longman. Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 7 March Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. World Scientific. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 4 February December Physics Today.
Bibcode : PhT New York: Walker. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 11 July The accelerating universe" PDF. Nobel Media AB. Archived from the original PDF on 16 May Retrieved 24 November The Atlantic. Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. The Trustees of Princeton University.
The Recollections of Eugene P. Parker Prometheus Books. Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved 17 October Women's Studies International Forum. Archived from the original PDF on 19 January Retrieved 19 October Shapell Manuscript Collection. Shapell Manuscript Foundation.
Retrieved 18 January Einstein: A Hundred Years of Relativity.